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Balkanika | Documentation

Transliteration and pronounciation

The Cyrillic Bulgarian, Serbian and North Macedonian scripts are generally transliterated using ISO 9:1995 Transliteration of Cyrillic characters into Latin characters. Where necessary, pronounciation is given between // using the International Phonetic Alphabet (click on link or see below).

 Bulgarian

Cyrillic Latin/IPA
А а
Б б
В в
Г г
Д д
Е е
Ж ж
З з
И и
Й й
К к
Л л
М м
Н н
О о
П п
Р р
С с
Т т
У у
Ф ф
Х х
Ц ц
Ч ч
Ш ш
Щ щ
Ъ ъ
Ь ь
Ю ю
Я я
a
b
v
g
d
e /ɛ/
ž /ʒ/
z
i
j /j/
k
l
m
n
o
p
r
s
t
u
f
h
c /ts/
č /tʃ/
š /ʃ/
št /ʃt/
ǎ /uh/
y /-/
yu
ya

 

Macedonian

Cyrillic Latin/IPA
А  а
Б  б
В  в
Г  г
Д  д
Ѓ  ѓ
Е  е
Ж  ж
З  з
Ѕ  ѕ
И  и
Ј  ј
К  к
Л  л
Љ  љ
М  м
Н  н
Њ  њ
О  о
П  п
Р  р
С  с
Т  т
Ќ  ќ
У  у
Ф  ф
Х  х
Ц  ц
Ч  ч
Џ  џ
Ш  ш
a
b
v
g
d
ģ /ɟ/
e /ɛ/
ž /ʒ/
z
dz
i
j /j/
k
l
lj
m
n
nj
o
p
r
s
t
/c/
u
f
h /x/
c /ts/
č /tʃ/
dž /dʒ/
š /ʃ/

 

 Serbian

Cyrillic Latin/IPA
А  а
Б  б
В  в
Г  г
Д  д
Ђ  ђ
Е  е
Ж  ж
З  з
И  и
Ј  ј
К  к
Л  л
Љ  љ
М  м
Н  н
Њ  њ
О  о
П  п
Р  р
С  с
Т  т
Ћ  ђ
У  у
Ф  ф
Х  х
Ц  ц
Ч  ч
Џ  џ
Ш  ш
a
b
v
g
d
Đ đ /dʑ/
e /ɛ/
ž /ʐ/
z
i
j /j/
k
l
lj
m
n
nj
o
p
r
s
t
ć /tɕ/
u
f
h /x/
c /ts/
č /ʈʂ/
dž /ɖʐ/
š /ʂ/

 

 Greek

Greek Latin/IPA
Α  α
Β  β
Γ  γ
Δ  δ
Ε  ε
Ζ  ζ
Η  η
Θ  θ
Ι  ι
Κ  κ
Λ  λ
Μ  μ
Ν  ν
Ξ  ξ
Ο  ο
Π  π
Ρ  ρ
Σ  σ/ς
Τ  τ
Υ  υ
Φ  φ
Χ  χ
Ψ  ψ
Ω  ω
ΑΙ  αι
ΑΥ  αυ
ΒΠ  βπ
ΓΓ  γγ
ΓΚ  γκ
ΓΞ  γξ
ΓΧ  γχ
ΕΙ  ει
ΕΥ  ευ
ΗΥ  ηυ
ΝΤ  ντ
ΟΙ  οι
ΟΥ  ου
a
v
g
d /dh/
e /ɛ/
z
i
th
i
k
l
m
n
x
o
p
r
s
t
y
f
ch /x/
ps
o /ɔː/ 
/ɛ/ 
/av/
/b/
/ng/
/nk/
/nks/
/nx/
/i/
/ev/
/iv/
/d//nd/
/i/
/u/

 

Turkish

Latin IPA
A  a
B  b
C  c
Ç  ç
D  d
E  e
F  f
G  g
Ğ  ğ
H  h
I  ı
İ  i
J  j
K  k
L  l
M  m
N  n
O  O
Ö  ö
P  p
R  r
S  s
Ş  ş
T  t
U  u
Ü  ü
V  v
Y  y
Z  z
.
.
/dʒ/
/tʃ/
.
.
.
.
/-/
.
/ɯ/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
/ø/
.
.
.
/ʃ/
.
.
/y/
.
/j/
.

 

Romanian

Latin IPA
A a
 â
Ă ă
B B
C c
D d
E e
F f
G g
H h
Î î
J j
K k
L l
M m
N n
O o
P p
R r
S s
Ş ş
T t
Ţ ţ
U u
V v
X x
Y y
Z z
.
/ə/
/ɨ/
.
/k//tʃ/
.
.
.
/ɡ//dʒ/
.
/ɨ/
/ʒ/
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
/ʃ/
.
/ts/
/u//w/
/v/
.
/j/
.

 

The Internation Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2020)

IPA Chart

Turkish tone system

Many of the Turkish scores (and some other ones) are noted using the Arel-Ezgi system, which divides a whole-tone interval in nine commas. In folk music scores, commas may also be indicated with a number next to the sharp and flat symbols. 

Arel-Ezgi system

Further reading

  • Makam – Modal practice in Turkish art music / Karl Signell / Da Capo Press, 1986 / 200 pp / ISBN 0521542065
  • Turkish music makam guide / Murat Aydemir / Pan Yayıncılık, 2010 / 216 pp / ISBN 9789944396844

Turkish notes

In the Turkish system notes have individual names, as listed in the below figure. In the standard transposition, the Turkish Re/D5 equates to the Western La/A4 and has a frequency of 440 Hz. In the Turkish tradition, written music is never transposed (as this would obscure the mode/makam); musicians are expected to be able to play any, or at least common transpositions from the same score. 

Turkish notes

Further reading

  • Makam – Modal practice in Turkish art music / Karl Signell / Da Capo Press, 1986 / 200 pp / ISBN 0521542065
  • Turkish music makam guide / Murat Aydemir / Pan Yayıncılık, 2010 / 216 pp / ISBN 9789944396844

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